Pathology Handbook

Liver Kidney Microsomal Antibody

Test Includes

Screening test for detection of IgG autoantibodies against Smooth muscle, Mitochondria and Liver Kidney Microsomal antigens.

Clinical Indications

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Autoimmune hepatitis
Please note: Low titre antibodies may be found in normal people and in a variety of diseases without an autoimmune basis, such as inflammation and cancer. The prevalence of these antibodies increases with age, but in general titres of greater that 1/80 are often significant disease indicators. Low or absent titres do not exclude disease in the presence of relevant clinical features

Request Form 

Request via ICE


Assay performed daily Monday to Friday

Specific Criteria

It is essential to provide relevant clinical information

Turnaround Time

All tests are performed on the next routine working day after receipt of the sample




7 ml


Red top tubeVacutainer red top


Samples should be transported to the laboratory immediately

Lab Handling

Aliquot and store at 4-8°C prior to testing and at -20°C or below for up to 1 month after receipt. 

Causes for Rejection

Unlabelled/inadequately labelled sample
Inadequately completed request form
Delay in sample reaching laboratory

Reference Range

Sera are screened at a dilution of 1/20 (paediatric samples 1/10). In general titres greater or equal to 1/80 are often significant. Samples found to be anti mitochondrial positive will be referred for M2 antibodies. Samples found to be positive at 1/20 may be referred for other Liver Specific Antibodies if clinical details and pattern observed indicate testing.

Below are listed the most common reported antibodies and their main clinical association:

Mitochondrial antibody - Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjogren's syndrome.

Smooth muscle antibody - autoimmune hepatitis, viral infections, SLE and RA.

Liver Kidney Microsomal Antibody- Autoimmune and drug induced hepatitis infections