Please note: Any sample found to be
Positive should be confirmed by skin biopsy. Any patient found to
be Negative, but with clinical features suggestive of bullous skin
disease should have a skin biopsy performed.
Detection of relevant antibody (usually IgG or IgA) to various
antigens in the epithelium, cell surface or to the basement
membrane zone (BMZ).
Request on ICE
Assay performed when sufficient samples received.
No special preparation is required.
It is essential to provide relevant clinical information.
All samples are generally sent to referral
laboratory within 3 working days of receipt in the
laboratory. The assay is performed when sufficient samples are
Red top tube. Gold top tube will be accepted.
Samples should be transported to the laboratory as soon as is
Aliquot and store at 4-8°C prior to testing and at -20°C or
below for up to 1 month after receipt.
Causes for Rejection
Unlabelled/inadequately labelled sample.
Inadequately completed request form.
Delay in sample reaching laboratory.
A qualitative result is given and samples are reported as
Positive, Weak Positive or Negative.
Listed below are the immunofluorescence patterns and their
associated skin diseases:
Pemphigus vulgaris: IgG autoantibodies to
epidermal cell surface antigens of stratified squamous epithelia.
Characteristic 'chicken wire pattern'.
Pemphigus foliaceus: IgG autoantibodies to
intercellular spaces of stratified squamous epithelia.
Paraneoplastic pemphigus: IgG
autoantibodies to epithelium cell surfaces and BMZ.
IgA pemphigus: IgA autoantibodies to
subcorneal or intercellular spaces of squamous epithelia.
Bullous pemphigoid: IgG autoantibodies to
Please note this is not an exhaustive list.