Pathology Handbook

VMA/HVA

Synonyms

HMMA, Vanillylmandelic acid

Clinical Indications

Screening of suspected neuroblastoma

NOT recommended for investigation of phaeochromocytoma: urine catecholamines are better for this 

Test Includes

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and Homovanillic acid (HVA)

Request Form 

Request on ICE

Availability

Analysed by referral laboratory if specific criteria met.

Specific Criteria

Screening of suspected neuroblastoma.

Turnaround Time

2 weeks

Specimen

Random urine in white-capped universal

Volume

2 ml

Container

Urine bottle white top

Collection

Samples should be transported to laboratory immediately.

Lab Handling

Aliquot and store at minus 20°C.

Causes for Rejection

Unlabelled sample.

Not meeting specific criteria for analysis.

Delay in sample reaching laboratory

Reference Range

Results are expressed as a ratio to creatinine

Age Range

HVA (μmol/mmol creat)

HMMA (μmol/mmol creat)

0 - 1 year

<20

<15

1 - 4 years

<10

<15

4 - 7 years

<10

<15

7 - 10 years

<10

<15

10 - 16 years

<10

<15